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    The principle of selecting metal materials for the manufacture of space vehicle is that the selected metal is small in density, high in melting point, high temperature resistant, not easy to oxidize and metamorphosed, high in hardness and strong in strength. So there are many kinds of metal materials selected: aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, rhenium alloy and so on.

    一、Aluminum Alloys

    Aluminum and aluminum alloys have a certain corrosion resistance in atmospheric environment, which is due to the easy formation of a thin and compact oxide film on the surface of aluminum and its alloy. Moreover, the oxide film thickens with the prolongation of the storage time. The greater the humidity in the atmosphere, the thicker the film will be. But the thickness is limited, about 5 to 200nm. However, because the film is amorphous, and the aluminum parts lose the original luster, and the film is porous and uneven, in the process and transportation process is easily damaged, and easy to stain stains.Therefore, aluminum and aluminum alloy products must be treated with conversion coating before they are released. There are two ways to treat the surface conversion coating of aluminum and aluminum alloy by chemical oxidation and anodization. The thickness of chemical oxidation film is only 1 ~ 5um, while the thickness of anodic oxidation can reach 100um. The structure, thickness and properties of the conversion film vary greatly with the different oxidation conditions of the solution used.In addition to the use of aerospace vehicles, the conversion membrane technology for aluminum and aluminum alloys is also widely used in the electronics industry, electricity, instruments, daily necessities, light industrial products, and the construction industry.

    Hard aluminum (mg Al alloy) is widely used in the manufacture of space shuttles, aircraft and ships. In addition, Al Li alloys are widely used. The two kinds of aluminum alloys have to be treated with surface treatment, and the surface treatment technology plays a great role in protecting metal materials and adding value. On the one hand, it can significantly reduce the corrosion rate of metal, save a lot of wealth for the society, and make it get beautiful appearance through decoration treatment.On the other hand, surface treatment technology can also provide new functions for metals, which are related to electricity, magnetism, light, sound, chemistry, machinery and so on. Because the function of the material is mostly reflected on the surface layer, it is possible to make some cheap base metal materials have special functions such as wear resistance, antifriction, magnetization, electrical conduction, welding and chemical catalysis. That is to say, the metal surface treatment technology can not only provide a smooth and beautiful surface for other processing technology, but also form a new surface material with important use value independently.

    1.1Hard aluminum(It contains 2.2 - 4.9%Cu, 0.2 - 1.8%Mg, 0.3 - 0.9%Mn, a small amount of silicon, and the rest is aluminum.),It has good mechanical properties, high strength, easy processing and low density. It can be used as lightweight structural material. Generally, the magnesium in the hard aluminum is not more than 2%. Manganese can improve the strength and corrosion resistance, generally limiting manganese less than 1%, adding a small amount of titanium can refine grain, iron and silicon are limited to less than 0.5-0.6%, and the iron and silicon ratio is more than equal to one. 

    The main disadvantages of the hard aluminum are: 

    1) poor corrosion resistance, so we have to wrap a layer of industrial pure aluminum on the surface of the hard aluminum sheet (the thickness of the pure aluminum 3-5%) to become aluminum clad aluminum. The strength of the aluminum coating decreases. 

    2) the temperature range of the solution treatment is narrow, and the maximum strengthening effect can not be exerted at this temperature, but the grain boundary "over" may cause the grain aggregation to be destroyed. 

    3) welding crack tends to be large and difficult to weld by fusion. 

    Superhard aluminum alloy: superhard aluminum is made of zine on the basis of hard aluminum, and the strength is higher than that of hard aluminum. So it is called superhard aluminum alloy, used in aircraft structural parts, such as wing beam, spiral blade, landing gear and so on. 

    1.2Al Li alloys are mainly developed for weight reduction of aircraft and aerospace equipment. Aeronautical application of Al Li alloy

    Al-Li alloys have been used or tried on military aircraft, civil airliners and helicopters, mainly used in fuselage frame, flap wing rib, vertical stabilizer, fairing, inlet lip, hatch, fuel tank and so on.

    Aerospace applications of Al Li alloy: for the structure of the spacecraft, the reduction of the mass can increase the payload, and the increase of the payload per 1kg can bring about $4400~110000. Therefore, because of the low density and good performance of Al-Li alloy, Al-Li alloy structure is adopted in many spacecraft.At present, the manufacture of aircraft uses low density, medium strength and high stiffness materials, so a large number of Al-Li alloy products are used. Since the middle of 1980s, Al-Li alloy 8090 and common machining methods have been widely used to produce various forgings, thick plates, sheets and extruded parts.

    LMSC uses 8090 plates on Hercules payload adaptor to reduce mass 180kg. The company uses the new space shuttle "ultralight fuel tank" produced by AA2195 alloy, up to 47m, with a diameter of 8.4m, which is used to hold low-temperature fuel and liquid hydrogen. The use of AA2195 alloy reduced the fuel tank by 5% (weight loss of nearly 3400kg), increased the strength by 30%, effectively increased the payload, and saved about 75 million US dollars. MDH Space System Co., Ltd. uses 20 - 90 - t - 8 1 sheet to make a low temperature box with a diameter of 2.44m and a long 3.05M, which is used for a triangle wing rocket to hold fuel and liquid oxygen. The quality is reduced by 15%.The United States General Dynamics space company used 2090 alloys on three components of the Atlas and Centaur launch vehicles, totaling 70kg, and the quality was 2024 lower than 8%. In December 1997, the outer space tank of the us endeavour spacecraft was replaced by 2195 instead of 2219, and its carrying capacity increased by 3.4t.

    Al-Li alloy also has many applications in Russian space industry. Russia has developed a 1460 alloy with 0.20% Sc elements on the basis of 1450 alloy, and has a better performance. It is applied to the structure of the "energy number" of a large launch vehicle. In addition, it is also used in other rocket, "Snowstorm" space shuttle and space station structural parts.


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